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Using the MARS MIPS simulator tool
Problem 1: Counting Words in a Text File and Finding their Frequency
Write and test a MIPS assembly language program to count the words in a text file and compute their
frequency. The program should do the following:
&#9632; Open a text file and read all characters into an array. The maximum number of characters to be
read should be limited to the size of the array, which should be 100,000 characters. MARS
provides the system calls for opening a file, reading from a file, etc.
&#9632; Traverse the array character by character and detect the beginning and end of each word. A word
is defined here to contain only letters (capital or lowercase). Other characters (spaces, commas,
periods, parentheses, digits, etc.) should not be counted. Convert all letters to uppercase and
convert all non-letter symbols to white space.
&#9632; Construct a second array to contain all unique words encountered in the first array and their
frequencies. For example, if a word appears 100 times in the first array then it should appear
once in the second array and its frequency should be 100.
&#9632; Sort the words in the second array according to their frequency and output the top N words that
have the highest frequencies.
A sample run is shown below:
Enter input text filename: [url removed, login to view]
How many words to output: 7
Top 7 words with highest frequencies
Problem 2: Matrix Multiplication and Counting Instruction Frequencies
Write and test a MIPS assembly language program to perform matrix multiplication of N by N
matrices of double-precision floating-point numbers. In your program, define the space of three
100×100 matrices, where the maximum value of N is fixed at 100. Initialize the first two matrices
from two input text files and produce the result matrix in an output text file.
The matrix data should be read from a text file in row-major order. N × N signed integers should be
read from a text file. Each integer should be read from a separate line. Prompt the user to enter the
name of the text file, then open and read the text file line by line. Each line should be converted from
an integer string to a floating-point number. You need a procedure to convert the integer string
character-by-character to a floating-point number.
Write a procedure to do matrix multiplication of N × N matrices, where N is passed to the procedure
as a parameter. All matrix operations should be done using the double-precision floating-point
instructions. The output matrix should be written to a text file. Convert each double-precision
floating-point number to an integer string. You will need a procedure to convert the floating-point
number to an integer string. Write the integer string on a separate line in the output text file. Test and
verify the matrix multiply procedure, by examining the result matrix in the output text file.
After succeeding in matrix multiplication and producing the correct result, you will analyze the
MIPS code of the matrix multiply procedure, to have a better understanding of instruction
frequencies. You will count the dynamic number of instructions that are executed at runtime to
determine their frequencies in the matrix multiply procedure. You need a total of four counters to
count instructions for the following classes of instructions:
&#9632; Class 1 is for ALU instructions
&#9632; Class 2 is for floating-point instructions
&#9632; Class 3 is for load and store instructions
&#9632; Class 4 is for branch and jump instructions
You will augment the code of the matrix multiply procedure with additional instructions to count the
original number of instructions. You need four counters. At the beginning of the procedure, initialize
all counters to zeros. Before each instruction, insert additional instructions to count that instruction.
For example, if the original instruction is addiu then increment the counter of ALU instructions
before the instruction itself. If the same instruction is executed 100 times (in different loop
iterations), it will be counted as 100. Count only the real instructions. For pseudo-instructions, count
the equivalent real instructions. Make sure that your additional code does not interfere with the
original program code. Count only the original instructions of the matrix multiply procedure, not the
new ones that you have added. Display the statistics that you have produced. A sample run is show
Enter the matrix size N: 10
Enter the first matrix filename: [url removed, login to view]
Enter the second matrix filename: [url removed, login to view]
Enter the result matrix filename: [url removed, login to view]
Counting Instructions in the Matrix Multiply Procedure:
Total instructions = ???
ALU instructions = ??, Percentage = ?%
Floating-Point instructions = ??, Percentage = ?%
Load & Store instructions = ??, Percentage = ?%
Branch & Jump instructions = ??, Percentage = ?%
Problem 3: Single-Precision Floating-Point Addition in Software
Write and test a MIPS assembly language program to do single-precision floating-point addition in
software rather than in hardware. The procedure floatadd should receive its input parameters in $a0
and $a1 (as single-precision floating-point numbers) and produce its result in $v0 (as singleprecision
float). You cannot use the floating-point addition instruction add.s to do the
addition. Only integer instructions are allowed. Write additional procedures, if needed, to extract the
fields, normalize, and round the result significand.
You should also make sure to handle special cases:
&#9632; Zero, infinity, and NaN
&#9632; Overflow and underflow
&#9632; Denormalized numbers
Round the result to the nearest even, which is the default rounding mode in IEEE 754 standard. This
is the only rounding mode that should be supported.
Use the add.s instruction to check the result of the floating-point addition against the result produced
by the floatadd procedure to ensure correctness.
Write a main procedure to call and test the floatadd procedure. Specifically, you should ask the user
to input two floating-point numbers and to print the result.
A sample run should look as follows:
Enter 1st float: 1.25e-4
Enter 2nd float: 0.75e-3
Result of floatadd: 8.75e-4
Result of add.s: 8.75e-4
Coding and Documentation
Develop the code for the given problems with the following aspects in mind:
&#61623; Correctness: the code works properly
&#61623; Completeness: all cases have been covered
&#61623; Efficiency: the use of relevant instructions and algorithms
&#61623; Documentation: the code is well documented through the appropriate use of comments.
The project report must contain sections highlighting the following:
&#9632; Program Design
Specify clearly the design of each procedure giving detailed description of the algorithm
used/developed and the implementation details.
&#9632; Program Simulation
Describe all the simulator features that you have used for simulating your code with a clear
emphasis on its advantages and limitations (if any), debugging for errors, the use of system calls
and displaying the results of the program.
&#9632; Program Output and Discussion
Provide snapshots of the Simulator window and show all the results.
For program 1, provide input text files and show the top ten most frequently used words.
For program 2, show only the statistics that you have produced for different runs for N = 10, 20,
50, and 100. Comment on these statistics, the complexity of the Matrix Multiply procedure, and
the additional code that you inserted.
For program 3, provide sample inputs and outputs and discuss all the cases that were handled by
the floatadd procedure, such as normalized and denormalized numbers, zero, overflow, and
underflow. Also test and demonstrate rounding.