In an impartial fashion, analyze a scientific article written by scientists and for scientists that reports original scientific results. Impartiality means you must not judge what you think true and/or false in the claims being reported. Instead, analyze the piece of scientific reporting for two things:
1. Discuss how under-determination (UD) is handled in the scientific article.
2. Discuss the degree of certainty and/or confidence that you think characterizes how the scientists handle UD, whether that UD be actually acknowledged UD or the control, management, or minimization of (potential) UD. Use the idea of ‘statement types’ for this second task.